Long Bone: Are longer than wide – include: clavicle, humerus, radius, ulna, femur, tibia, fibula, metacarpals and phalanges.
Short Bones: Are both wide and short – include: found in wrist and ankles
Flat Bones: Ribs, sternum, scapulae, and bones in the vault of the skull
Irregular Bones: bones of mixed shapes, skull, vertebra and pelvic bones
Sesamoid Bones: are imbedded in certain tendons and reduce friction/pressure on tendons, protecting them from wear
Gross Motor Skills: movements with larger actions – running, crawling, jumping
Fine Motor Skills: movements with smaller actions – licking lips, lifting a glass….
Non-moveable: joined by fibrous connective tissue or cartilage
Synovial: free moveable joints containing a fluid-filled cavity between the bones
Hinge: Types are where one convex surface meets a concave surface--movement in flexion and extension
Condyloid: oval shaped process of one bone fits into the elliptical cavity of another - movement in flex/ext & abd/add
Osteokinematics: movements of bones at joints – flexion, abduction, rotation
Arthrokinematics: small motions between joint surfaces
Component motion: not voluntary active motion – scapula upwardly rotating naturally
Extension: movement that occurs at the joints where bones articulate.
Hyperextension: movement beyond its normal range
Flexion: movement that bends a joint (brings the bones closer together) Ex. Fetal position (most joints close together)
*Both Flexion & Extension take place in the Sagittal plane.
Abduction: moves limb laterally away from midline
Adduction: moves limb toward midline
* Abduction & Adduction – along the Frontal Plane – and pertain only to appendages
Medial Rotation: the limb turns in towards the midline
Lateral Rotation: moves the limb away from the midline
* Movement occurs at the shoulder & hip joints
Rotation: refers to only the axial skeleton (specifically head & vertebral column). Ex. Rotation of head or neck
* Movement occurs along the Transverse plane
Circumduction: is possible only at shoulder & hip joints. It involves a combination of flexion, extension, adduction and abduction; together these actions create a cone-shaped movement. Backstroke requires circumduction at the shoulder joint.
Proximal: nearer to center of body
Distal: farther from center of body
Medial: toward the midline
Lateral: away from the midline
Prone: lying face down
Supine: lying Face Up
Lateral Flexion: occurs at the axial skeleton. Ex. Head or vertebral column, bend laterally to the side
Supination: palm face up (radius and ulna lie parallel to one another), raising of the arch
Pronation: palm face down (radius crosses over the ulna), flattening of the arch
Plantar Flexion: >90 between the front ankle and shin. Think of pointing your foot away from you.
Dorsiflexion: <90 between the front ankle and shin. Think of pulling your toes towards your body.
Protraction: (“protrude”) move away anteriorly
Retraction: (“retract”) move away posteriorly
*Pertain to the scapula, clavicle, head and jaw.
Elevation: movement superiorly (“up” - towards the ceiling)
Depression: movement inferiorly (‘down’ – away, lower)
Sagittal plane: divides the body into left and right portions – flex/ext.
Transverse (Horizontal) plane: plane that divides the body into superior and inferior - rotation
Frontal (Coronal) Plane: vertical plane, divides the body into anterior (front) and posterior (back)
Superficial: nearer the surface of the body; the opposite of the deep
Inferior: Away from the head
Dorsal: relating to the back; posterior
Kyphosis: condition characterized by abnormally increased convexity in the curve of the thoracic spine from side view
Edema: body tissues retain excessive amounts fluid
Kinesiology: the study of movement
Tactile: pertaining to touch
Hyaline: cartilage that unites synchondroses or primary cartilaginous joints
Fibrocartilage: joins symphysis (secondary cartilaginous joints) by a plate --union of the bodies of the vertebrae or the R/L pubis
Symphysis: a union between two bones formed by fibrocartilage
Synchondrosis: a union between two bones formed by hyaline cartilage or fibrocartilage
Synovial Joint: a joint containing a lubricating substance (synovial fluid) lined with a synovial membrane or capsule
Tendon: fibrous tissue connecting skeletal muscle to bone
Ligament: fibrous connective tissue that connects bone to bone
Connective Tissue: supportive tissues made of fibrous tissues
Fibrous joint: joints that are connected by fibrous tissue
Fascicle: bundle of muscle fibers
Fascia: dense layers of loose connective tissue
Facet: small plane or concave surface
Impingement: an encroachment on the space occupied by soft tissue, such as nerve or muscle
Condyle: rounded articular surface at the extremity of a bone
Bursa – small fluid sac that reduces friction between two surfaces
Unilateral: pertaining to one side; m. 1 leg stable in sp. press pedal down with other leg. Avoid rotation of pedal/torso
Bilateral: pertaining to two sides; Split pedal and complete exercise, keep both sides of pedal even
Reciprocal: one then the other; Alternating pressing pedals down with each leg, switching legs simultaneously. Exhale on each press
Concentric Contraction: shortening, muscle fibers contract and generate more force than the resistance that is present so that the ends of the muscle slide toward each other and the muscle shortens. Ex. Knee stretch series
Eccentric Contraction: lengthening. Muscle fibers contract and generate less force than the resistance that is present so that the ends of the muscle slide apart and the muscle actually lengthens. The muscle is active as it lengthens, so this is not the same as relaxing the muscle.
Isometric: muscles contracting while staying the same length. (Increase in tension w/o change in length.)
Isotonic: increase in tension with change in muscle length (Shortening – concentric contraction.)
Isotonic contraction (dynamic): concentric or eccentric contraction of a muscle; a muscle contraction performed w/ movement.
Lordosis: anterior curve of the cervical and lumbar spine
Kyphosis: posterior curves in the thoracic and sacral regions of spine
Flat-back: flat spine, decreased lumbar lordosis, hip extension, posterior pelvic tilt
Sway-back: anterior pelvis, hip extension, posterior shifted thorax, increased lumbar lordosis/thoracic kyphosis, forward head
ASIS: anterior superior iliac spine – projection of ilium at the front of the pelvis
PSIS: posterior superior iliac spine, projection of the ilium at the back of the pelvis